When Emily is reassigned to Commander Lawrence's house, his house is littered with books and artifacts. Emily is caught looking at a book entitled Maus, a graphic novel by Art Spiegelman. The story is about Spiegelman’s own father, who survived Auschwitz during the Holocaust. (In Episode 2.12, Postpartum).
When June enters Commander Lawrence's study, which is now full of Commanders, the men are discussing a "shipment" of females from Chicago bound for the Colonies. As a discussion about the difference in gender abilities comes up, Lawrence mocks June's former profession as book editor and then commands her to fetch Charles Darwin’s "The Descent of Man" from his bookshelf. She retrieves the book in question and kneels to give it to him, and he dismisses her, remarking "Women can be useful" (Episode 3.3, Useful).
In Canada, Emily and her wife Sylvia see each other for the first time in years. Sylvia's street number is 451. "Fahrenheit 451" (the temperature at which book paper catches fire) is a dystopian novel by Ray Bradbury of a future American society where books are outlawed (Episode 3.4, God Bless the Child).
While having breakfast, Offred compares eggs to the likeliness of the moon, stating they both may have life inside but not on the surface. The novel "The First Men in the Moon" (by H. G. Wells) describes lunar natives who live underground (VIII Birth Day, Section 19).